God Commanding the Watery Chaos

Genesis 1:2 presents the world in watery chaos. How is Yahweh going to bring order? Why a watery chaos? Ancient Israelites would have seen a watery chaos at the beginning of a story as a genre trigger for a creation story (what we call a “cosmogony”). In the same way we think, This is going to be a fairytale, when we hear the words “once upon a time,” an Israelite would think, This is going to be a creation story, when they heard “watery chaos” (i.e. “now the earth was formless and void and darkness was over the surface of the deep”).

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There are four elements at the beginning of creation that find close parallel to Egyptian beliefs about creation (a separate post will look at Mesopotamian parallels): Emptiness (i.e., an earth that is “formless and void”), darkness, the deep (i.e., the primeval sea), and the spirit of God (some translations have “mighty wind,” – but that’s a post for another day). Egyptian texts (more specifically, Hermopolitan texts) feature four deities that are frequently called “the chaos gods”: Nu, whose name means the watery one and who is called the father of the gods (His name is later rendered Nun from the Egyptian word for inert.); Huh, whose name means infinity or boundlessness; Kuk who is darkness; and Amun, the god of wind, whose name means hiddenness.

J. Hoffmeier, an evangelical Egyptologist, and bible scholar propose the following parallels:

Nun = the deep

Huh = the earth that is ‘formless and void’

Kuk = darkness

Amun = spirit (or wind) of God

The image portrayed both in Genesis 1:2 and in Egyptian texts is that of a cosmos that is without proper form. The creative activity of the deities brings order and function out of the initial inert chaos. Which god is actually doing the creating varies in Egyptian texts. No attempt is made to explain the origin of the watery chaos in any text from the ancient Near East. Apparently, they didn’t care. However, there is general agreement that life springs from the primeval sea.

What’s the point?
Two things:

1) We need to understand that ancient Israelites, especially the Exodus generation, were not monotheists. They needed to be taught that their God, Yahweh, was in fact the creator God. They needed to understand that their God put each facet of the created world into its correct place, for a specific purpose.

2) For us, I think it’s helpful to see that God enjoys and is capable of bringing order out of chaos. God has an ability to make things, even seemingly crazy, chaotic things in our lives, work together for good.

What Does “Fear of the Lord” Mean?

‘Fear of God / Yahweh’ is a consistent theme of wisdom literature. Proverbs famously asserts, “Fear of Yahweh is the beginning of wisdom” (Proverbs 1:7). But there seems to be a fair amount of confusion about what scripture means when it exhorts us to fear God.

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With or Without God

In my opinion, the easiest way to understand the concept of fearing God is to think about what it looks like not to fear God. Someone who does not fear God has no concern for accountability for actions. To fear God is to live with a healthy sense that we will have to give account for our actions. As Ecclesiastes says in summing up the message of the book: The very essence of what it means to be human is to fear God and keep his commands (Ecc 12:13-14). Going through life with no regard for the fact that God cares about how we live our lives is what it means to live without fear of God. However, the one who fears God is consistently cognizant of the fact that God is present, watching, and concerned for how we represent him in the world.

Fear of the Lord

The word translated ‘fear’ can run the gamut from respect all the way to outright pee your pants horror and it is difficult to come up with a direct English translation. Most uses of the phrase in the Old Testament have a positive spin, but some scholars believe there are instances where fear of God is a negative, particularly in Ecclesiastes 3:14. Although the phrase ‘fear of God’ is usually positive, there are times when God tells people not to fear him, as when Yahweh appears to Isaac (Gen 26:24). This indicates that when the phrase ‘fear of God/Yahweh’ is used the idea is not one of dread or horror since this is what God attempts to alleviate when he says, “Do not fear.”

Fear Leads to Wisdom

The important thing is not the exact meaning of fear, but the object of the fear: Yahweh.
To fear God is to realize our creatureliness in light of the
sovereignty of Yahweh over all his creation. Fear of God leads to wisdom simply because our realization that we are creatures utterly dependent on God naturally results in seeking him, the source of wisdom and understanding.

Strength and Wealth

If you’ve been teaching the Bible, reading the Bible or just curious about the Bible you know the inevitable question:  What’s God’s deal with money?

First some context: In some ancient Near Eastern languages the words for ‘strength’ and ‘wealth’ are interchangeable. In Deuteronomy 6:5, the so-called shema, Moses tells the Israelites to love the Lord their God with all their hearts and with all their souls and with all their strength. The problem with this verse is that it literally says to love God with ‘all your exceedingly.’ Obviously, ‘all your exceedingly’ doesn’t make sense and so translators had to figure out how to put that into sensible English.

Not a New Problem

The funny thing is that ancient translators experienced the same problem. The translators of the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament made before the time of Christ, used the words power or might. This is where we get the translation ‘all your strength.’ The targums, Aramaic translations of the Old Testament, use the word mammon. This is the very word Jesus uses when he says, “You cannot serve both God and mammon,” i.e., money.

Beyond Money and Guilt
The point is that in Deuteronomy we are being told to love God with everything we’ve got, including our money. It’s not about tithing. It’s about loving God with all you’ve got, not just the first ten percent. It’s also not a guilt trip. Moses wasn’t some greasy con-man who just wanted people’s money. Moses was telling us that God wants us to love him with every financial decision we make: paying rent, eating out, buying groceries, investing in your 401(k)… everything. God’s desire is that we revel in his blessing while eagerly desiring to pay that blessing forward.

November 30, 2015

Finding Favor

 

When we tell our kids the story of Noah and the ark, we tell it in its simplest form, a high-level overview of someone who obeyed and trusted God. But if we will look closer at this Old Testament story, we find answers to some of our big questions about what it means to walk with God.

God Has Second Thoughts 

As we edge into chapter 6 of Genesis, we find that things are starting to get really bad for humanity. We see that the wickedness on earth is so extreme that every intention of the thoughts of people is only evil all the time. That’s quite the indictment. We read that God, grieved in his heart, regrets having created people. As a result, he decides to take action saying he will “blot out man” from the face of the earth (verse 7).

One Guy. Really?

Then we find a fascinating statement: “But Noah found favor in the eyes of Yahweh” (Genesis 6:8). In the midst of things being all evil all the time, one man finds favor in God’s eyes. Why? Was he super righteous? Really good looking? A master at giving great sacrifices? In chapter 7 we are told, “Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation. Noah walked with God” (verse 9).

There it is! Noah was righteous and blameless. Apparently walking with God is connected to being righteous and blameless. But we still might wonder, “What does that look like, and who could really achieve that anyway?” Jesus says that no one is good except God (Mark 10:18, Luke 18:19). If that’s the case, why does Genesis say that Noah was righteous? Was Jesus just wrong? Had he never read Genesis?

Don’t Skim Over the Best Part

Genesis 6:14-7:5 gives God’s specific directions for constructing and outfitting the ark. We like to skim over this section the same way we skim over a genealogy because we’re not sure why it’s there. I’d argue that the instructions are included so that we can see that Noah followed them just as they were given. What seems at first to be the boring plan for a construction project is in fact a picture of what it means to walk with God: Obedience to his word. The bottom line on walking with God is that you listen to what God says and do it.

Here’s the point: Noah was righteous because he believed God and demonstrated his belief by obedience. This is what set him apart from the wickedness surrounding him and it will do the same for us. We can complicate this message all we want but it really can be that simple.

Genealogy: So What?

 

Could a genealogy of guys who lived really long lives be useful for showing us how to walk with God? Let’s take a look and see what we find. Right off the bat we’re given an account of Adam’s line:

The List Begins

When Adam had lived 130 years, he fathers a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth. The days of Adam after he fathered Seth were 800 years; and he had other sons and daughters. Thus all the days that Adam lived were 930 years, and he died. When Seth had lived 105 years, he fathered Enosh. Seth lived after he fathered Enosh 807 years and had other sons and daughters. Thus all the days of Seth were 912 years, and he died. (Genesis 5:3-8)


And Goes On…

I’ll stop before your eyes glaze over, but suffice it to say that it goes on like this. Did you notice the formula? So and so lived a certain number of years, had children, and died. In fact, you probably start skimming over genealogies as we usually do when we recognize a pattern. We also have a tendency to get sidetracked by the ridiculously long lifespans, but that’s not really the point of the passage. No, I think what we are supposed to notice is that every entry ends the same: “and he died.”

Wait! Here’s Something Different

Genesis 5 says Mahalalel lived sixty-five years, had a son, named him Jared, lived another 830 years for a total of 895, and then he died. Jared lived 162 years, had a son, named him Enoch, lived another 800 years for a total of 962 years, and then he died. Enoch lived sixty-five years, had a son, named him Methuselah, lived another 300 years for a total of 365 years, and then “he was not, for God took him.” (Genesis 5:24)

The break in the pattern means that we should pay attention. Something’s different with Enoch. Verse 24 tells us that unlike the others in the genealogy Enoch walked with God. A quick scan of the next verses shows that Enoch was unique; all the other men on the list died. In the entire list of generations, one person managed to escape death, and we’re told he walked with God.

A Man Who Knew Who He Was and Where He Came From

For Enoch, walking with God was simply doing what was commanded. That’s why Jesus says, “If you love me you will obey my commands.” (John 14:15) Jesus echoed this concept of walking with God when he spoke to his disciples shortly before his death in John 15, saying “Abide in me and I in you.” (Verse 4)

It’s as much about being with Jesus as it is active obedience. This is sometimes hard for us to grasp. It’s not about perfection; it’s about knowing the one who created us. And it’s what separated Enoch from the rest of his genealogy.

Cain & Lamech: Two Murders, One Appeal

 

You’re probably familiar with Cain’s story, Lamech maybe not as much. These two men from the Old Testament both demonstrate an approach to confront and deal with our sin, though the outcomes are very different. Cain, though an unlikely example, offers an excellent paradigm for what it looks like to have an ongoing relationship with God.

Unexpected Grace

Cain is remembered for committing the first murder when he killed his brother in a jealous rage. Genesis 4:10 records that God confronts Cain with his sin and tells him that he’s banished from God’s presence, destined to live as a fugitive and wanderer on the earth. Cain cries out to God for mercy, which may seem like an incredibly cheeky thing to do, for someone with blood on his hands, but Cain clearly knew enough about God’s character to appeal for mercy.

Even in his righteous judgment, the Lord responds to Cain’s plea with a gesture of grace. He places a mark of protection on him and says, “If anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over.” (Genesis 4:15) Note that Cain is still banished, but because he called on the Lord, even in his punishment God demonstrates mercy.

A Dangerous Assumption

Later in Genesis, we read about Lamech, who commits the second murder. Like Cain, Lamech speaks about his guilt, but instead of crying out to Yahweh, he assumes the same mercy extended to Cain will be extended to him. But there is no indication in the text that his words are sanctioned by God, and thus I don’t think God is bound by Lamech’s insistence that God avenge him.

We are given these parallel stories to show us something about the Lord’s character and how he invites us to deal with our sin. Lamech takes matters into his own hands and declares that anyone who touches him will be in big trouble. When Cain is confronted with his sin, he calls out to God and is met with grace. This theme is echoed at the end of the chapter, “At that time, people began to call on the name of Yahweh.” (Genesis 4:26)

We don’t have to wait until we get to the New Testament to see a God who meets us with grace and mercy.

“Hey! Remember Me?”

 

Our world is a busy place, and a noisy one too. We have stuffed life so full of competing priorities that it’s easy to let our relationship with God slip into second, third, or seventh place. The Bible has a remedy for this: remembering.

Forgetting Means Trouble

The idea of remembering what the Lord has done runs all throughout scripture. Even in a casual read of Deuteronomy you’ll continually see, “Hey, remember what the Lord has done” and it continues all the way to the end of scripture. When you read Revelation, you see God giving letters to the different churches and to the Church of Ephesus and he says, “Hey, you’re doing great, but I’ve got this problem. You’ve slipped away from your first love.” The remedy God gives for this loss is to remember, “Remember the heights from which you have fallen. Repent and do the things you did at first” (Revelation 2:5).

Recognize the Author and Tell the Stories

The point is that we need to be continually in the habit of remembering, and enumerating, or bringing to mind and replaying the different things that God has done in our lives. And it doesn’t have to be just our lives. There is power in hearing the stories of what God has done in the lives of others.

Even recalling the daily things like the flowers in your garden or the smell of fresh cut grass, things that remind you of God’s goodness, can be powerful. The little things that God puts in our lives—remember them and remember what God has done. Remember what God has done for others and what he has done throughout history. This is how we guard our hearts from gradually slipping away from our first love.

First Fruits

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The Old Testament describes several rituals and ceremonies, including the consecration of the firstborn, which is tied in with the celebration of the Passover. It’s a commemorative sign of what God did for the Israelites; a ritual they would perform to remember.

Let’s Remember Where This Came From

But the firstborn ceremony is not the only first-fruits type offering. There is an offering described in Deuteronomy 26 that is specifically about the first fruits of the soil. The point is this: the first thing you do when you receive your income—the first fruit of your labor, so to speak—is give some of it back to the Lord as a reminder of who provided for you in the first place. When the first fruits offering were presented in Deuteronomy 26, it was accompanied by a narrative: “Our ancestors were in Egypt and the Lord delivered us and he brought us into this good land so we give back to the Lord a part of what he has given to us.”

In other words, “Hey Israel, God delivered you from Egypt, and as a way of remembering who ultimately provides for you, you need to give back the first fruits of all of your income.”

Be Creative in Your Offerings

Let’s think for a moment about the implications for us. There are two big ramifications for us as believers: First, God really likes it when we commemorate his provision by giving back to him. It doesn’t really matter what it is, though it’s easy to think in terms of income. I’ll give back a certain percent of my income right off that bat and that makes good Biblical sense. But we’ve got to think in terms of everything. What is it that the Lord is giving us? If you have a plot of ground in your backyard where you grow some awesome corn, when you harvest that corn, take a little bit of it and give it away. Or throw a party with your friends and eat some awesome corn. The nitty gritty details of exactly how we give back to God are not important. The important thing is that we continually remind ourselves of who is ultimately our provider.

Relax

 

quiet boatSo how do we find this balance between recognizing the importance of the law without thinking that we have to as Christians somehow Judaize ourselves, or keep every single little letter of the law? The key concept is that we as believers are in Christ. Take a look at Matthew 5:

“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. Truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.” (Matthew 5:17-18, TNIV)

The Law Holds

So as long as you look around and say, “Well the earth hasn’t disappeared,” then the law still holds. The other thing I would point you to is in Romans 8:

“Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit who gives life has set you free from the law of sin and death. For what the law was powerless to do because it was weakened by the sinful nature, God did by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful humanity to be a sin offering. And so he condemned sin in human flesh, in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fully met in us, who do not live according to the sinful nature but according to the Spirit.” (Romans 8:1-4, TNIV)

Righteousness Transferred

Jesus makes it very clear: “The law holds. The law has not passed away. I didn’t come to abolish it; I came to fulfill it.” And the miracle is that by virtue of being in Christ, Christ’s righteousness in regard to the law is transferred to us.

This is an amazing thing and really it should give us permission to relax. Just relax. Some of us are so concerned about if we should be keeping the festivals, or how do to keep the Sabbath, or how to do this, or how to do that. To some extent we can let our own consciences guide us on those things, but at the end of the day we have to sit back and relax and realize we are in Christ and therefore we are righteous in regards to the law.

The Law and My Ditch

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It’s hard to stay on the road in regards to Old Testament law. We tend to veer off into one of two ditches. The first is legalism.

Why the Legalism Ditch is So Inviting

Let’s be honest; most of us just naturally tend toward some sort of legalism because it feels safe. If I have really clearly delineated dos and don’ts, it gives me a sense of comfort to follow the dos and don’t do the don’ts. An easy example of this is the command, “Don’t take the name of the Lord your God in vain.” In the intertestamental period, the Jews said, “Hey, if I never take the name Yahweh at all, I’ll never have to worry about taking it in vain.”

It’s this kind of legalism that develops when we put a hedge around the law to ensure that we don’t break it. The tendency is to go beyond the actual intents of the laws and put extra dos and don’ts in our lives. This tendency toward legalism is a very common thing and it can get in the way of a proper understanding of God’s grace.

Or We Could Just Reject it All

The opposite extreme of legalism is what in Church history is called Marcionism. It’s the idea that the Old Testament is completely irrelevant. That was for them and now that we are Christians the Old Testament no longer applies. It’s basically an outright rejection of anything in the Old Testament including the law.

I have to be honest and say that even though most of us say that all Scripture is super important, we act as though it’s not. Frankly, the Old Testament is tougher to get into. It’s easier to read to read a letter from Paul—say Paul’s letter to the Philippians—and apply that to our lives than it is to dig in to something like Exodus 21-23. There’s a bigger cultural barrier, and that sort of makes us into pragmatic Marcionists—pragmatically ignoring the legal sections of scripture.

This is a problem because honestly, God calls all sections of Scripture useful and profitable and all of those sections of Scripture reveal something about who God is that I think is quite important.

Let’s start by being honest about which ditch we’re in and challenge each other to try to live with balance in regard to the law.