Snakes and Signs

One of the tools that God gave his prophets was signs. Let me explain why. How would it be if I came up to you and gave you some tremendously big calling? What if I said, “You’re going to be king of a nation that has never had a king before”? You would probably look at me like I’m a blithering idiot, but this is exactly what happens when Samuel confronts Saul and says, “Hey, you’re going to be king!” (1 Samuel 9) It’s a crazy message from God and Samuel used signs to confirm that it was authentic.

Give Me a Sign

You get the same thing with Gideon. God tells Gideon that he’s going to deliver the people from the oppression of the Midianites. Gideon promptly informs God that he’s a nobody who couldn’t possibly deliver the people, but God says, “Yeah, that doesn’t really matter because I am going to be with you.”  (This is the same thing God said to Moses when he called him to deliver the Hebrews from slavery and Moses protested..) God proceeds to give Gideon some signs to prove this is an actual, real, legitimate message from the Lord. That’s the purpose of signs. They authenticate the message.

Similarly, in Exodus 4 God gives Moses some reassurance. First, he talks to Moses in a burning bush, a sign to Moses that this is the real deal. God is calling Moses to go before Pharaoh and declare the very words of the Lord. Moses knows that unless he can give some sort of sign to confirm that his message is actually from God, Pharaoh will not believe him.

Moses answered, “What if they do not believe me or listen to me and say, ‘Yahweh did not appear to you’?” Then Yahweh said to him, “What’s in your hand?” “A staff,” he replied. Yahweh said, “Throw it on the ground.” Moses threw it on the ground and it became a snake, and he ran from it. (Exodus 4:1-3)



Why a Snake?

Have you ever wondered why God decided to use a snake as a sign to convince the Egyptians that Moses was actually sent by God? I think the choice was quite intentional. In Egypt, snakes were a big deal. If you look at a statue of Pharaoh, you’ll notice that often times he’ll be wearing a headdress that has a snake. That snake was called a uraeus. The uraeus was viewed as a source of protection for Pharaoh. In fact, Pharaoh believed that his uraeus went into battle before him. A text called the Qadesh Chronicle records a battle against the Hittites. Ramses II, who many think is the Pharaoh of the Exodus, says, “I entered into the battle-lines fighting like the pounce of a falcon. My uraeus-serpent overthrowing my enemies for me, she spat her fiery flames in the face of my foes.” In light of Pharaoh’s view of the serpent, isn’t it interesting that God is going to attack Pharaoh right where he believes he’s strongest?

Ramses II Uraeus.png

The Battle Lines are Drawn

If we fast-forward to Exodus 7, we see that it actually happens. Moses is before Pharaoh and Aaron takes his staff, throws it on the ground and it turns into a snake. God has set up an intentional play against the very thing that Pharaoh considers to be his protector.

What happens next is critically significant. Pharaoh calls upon his Egyptians to perform the same trick through their magical arts and they somehow manage to get a snake on the ground, and the text tells us that Aaron’s snake eats, or swallows up, their snakes. This is hugely significant polemic where scripture is informing us that God is hitting Pharaoh right where he’s at. The lines of a cosmic battle have just been drawn.

I am With You

So think about this: Moses, some guy who spent the last forty years wandering around in the wilderness of Midian with sheep, is sent to stand before Pharaoh, the most powerful man in the world at that time. And God uses signs to help confirm that Moses’ message is actually from God. Think about what it would be like to be in a situation where you are called to stand before the most powerful man in the world and say, “Hey, what you’re doing is wrong. You need to let my people go.”

Moses is well aware that Pharaoh would be within his rights, from an Egyptian point of view, to simply look at Moses and say, “Yeah, you’re dead.” Imagine the fear and the trepidation that Moses would have felt. This is actually part of the reason why Moses initially argues when God calls him to go to Pharaoh. Moses says, “Ah, come on. I can’t do that! I don’t know that I can go before Pharaoh. You should send someone else.” God gets angry at Moses, but not because Moses is afraid. Moses’ fear makes perfect sense. He gets angry because Moses is not grasping what God is saying, which is “Moses, it does not matter what you think you can do. What matters is I am with you.”

God is With Us

For us, the message is that there are going to be times when God puts us into some uncomfortable situations, or puts us into scenarios where we realize, “Oh man, I am way over my head!” But God—the most powerful God, the God who is more powerful than Pharaoh, the Creator Ruler of the Universe—is with us, and that allows us to have confidence.

When I’m having a conversation with my co-worker and I’m afraid that I’m going to say the wrong thing, or turn him off toward the Lord, or when I somehow try to talk about Jesus but so badly misrepresent him, God is with me. When you have an interaction with your boss and you’re kind of afraid, and it’s a little bit uncomfortable but you know that you need to do it, God is with you.

In our daily lives, we are regularly confronted with things that make it easy for us to operate out of fear. The message from Exodus 4—and God even gives signs to show it—is that you can face the most daunting most intimidating circumstances when God is with you.


Covenant: God’s Plan to Restore Relationship

How Did you Become A Christian?

Take a moment to think about how you became a Christian. Or, if you’re not yet a Christian, what prompted you to check out more about it? Odds are there was a person in your life who first told you about Jesus. There are, of course, exceptions, but the overwhelming majority of believers have someone in their life who first introduced them to faith in Christ. For me, it was my parents. I would suggest that the norm has always been that God would draw people to himself, bless them, and they would, in turn, have the responsibility to bless others.


Scripture opens with the story of creation. In the first couple chapters of the Bible we read that God created the world and when everything was put together and functioning as it should, God looked at it and said it was very good. But then sin entered the world and that which was very good got corrupted, the effects of which we still see today.


As the opening chapters of Genesis roll on we see that by chapter 11 things have gotten so bad that people are being scattered across the face of the earth and there seems to be no hope for the unsullied relationship between God and people that were presented in Genesis chapter 2.

GODS PLANThen we roll into Genesis 12 and we read of God’s plan to begin restoring his relationship with people. He calls Abram, later Abraham, and tells him to go to the land God will show him and that God is going to bless him and make his name great and that Abram’s job is to be a blessing to the nations. The basic idea is that God is

  • pulling Abram aside
  • pouring out his blessing on him
  • commanding Abram to be a blessing to the nations.

This was God’s missions plan to reach the nations. People would look at Abram, see that he was being blessed, and desire to know who his God was.


Fast forward to Exodus 19 and we see the same basic idea on the national level. Here we have the nation, freshly released from slavery in Egypt, gathered at the foot of Mt. Sinai, and God is going to make a covenant, a treaty, with them to bless them so they can be his representatives to the nations.

Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain and said, “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob and what you are to tell the people of Israel: ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

So Moses went back and summoned the elders of the people and set before them all the words the LORD had commanded him to speak. The people all responded together, “We will do everything the LORD has said.” So Moses brought their answer back to the LORD. –Ex 19:3-8 (NIV)

SAVED FROM SLAVERY The first thing to notice from this passage is that the people are already saved from slavery. They could go their own way at this point, but God is giving them the option of entering into a treaty relationship with him where they will be his people and He will be their God. The law comes in the next chapter because God has always been about drawing people into a relationship with himself prior to addressing issues of behavior. In other words, we shouldn’t expect unbelievers to act like believers prior to coming to faith.


There are a few key promises God is making to the Israelites in this passage.

  1. They will be a holy nation. This simply means that they will be set apart from the other nations to be God’s special people.
  2. They will also be a kingdom of priests. In other words, they are to be his representatives to the nations. Just like Abram, they will be blessed by God and they will in turn be a blessing to the nations.


The next big concept in the passage is that Israel will be God’s special possession or his ‘special treasure.’ The word here indicates that Israel will be what the special treasure was to kings in the ancient Near East. The Assyrians were masters at this. They would have foreign dignitaries walk down special halls full of unique, exotic treasures and wall reliefs depicting the many Assyrian military victories. The goal was that by the time the delegate reached the presence of the Assyrian king he would be completely overwhelmed by his majesty. It’s a similar idea to a foreign ambassador visiting the White House. They don’t typically go to McDonald’s. Rather, they have a lavish meal at the White House designed to show off the wealth and prosperity of the US. What God is saying to Israel is that she is to function like the royal treasure, showing off to the world how amazing the Lord is.

This was God’s missions plan to reach the nations, and it’s the same for us today. Peter wrote,

As you come to Jesus, the living Stone, rejected by humans but chosen by God and precious to him, you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. You are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light.

–1 Peter 2:4-5, 9

Peter was writing to believers scattered through the provinces of Asia Minor and his message holds for us today. We are built into a spiritual house, which likely means we are made into a house for the Spirit of God. As we are built into this house, we are to be God’s special treasure that he uses to show his glory and draw people to himself. Our job–our mission–is to declare the praises of him who called us out of darkness and into his wonderful light.

God Hardens Pharaoh’s Heart

Now we come to the plagues. In order to properly understand what’s going on in Exodus chapters 7-10, we have to account for a comment that God makes in Exodus12:12, where he says, “Look, what I’m doing here is bringing judgment on all the God’s of Egypt.”

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Taking on the Gods

By virtue of the plagues, God is demonstrating his authority over things that were thought to be under control of Egyptian gods. Many people have tried to make one-to-one correlations between each of the plagues and a specific Egyptian deity. It doesn’t work. Egypt had somewhere in the neighborhood of 1,500 different gods and each of them could take on different manifestations. You can understand the issues with trying to find a direct connection between each plague and a single god, but the point of Exodus 12:12 still stands: When you look at the different plagues, different Egyptian deities had control over each of those aspects of nature.

For example, let’s look at the waters of the Nile River turning to blood. The Nile itself was actually deified in Egyptian mythology. The name used for the Nile god was Hapy. Hapy was responsible for bringing agricultural abundance to the valley through the waters of the Nile. So when God turned the waters of the Nile to blood and upset the entire ecosystem, it could be viewed as a judgment against Hapy.

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While we can point to the Nile running red with blood as an indictment of Hapy, it can also be viewed as a judgment against Pharaoh himself. Pharaoh is the manifestation of the sun god, and it is Pharaoh who has ultimate responsibility for the well-being of Egypt. He is responsible for ma´at, the Egyptian concept of truth, balance, and order. When God unleashes the plagues, it destroys the ma´at and challenges Pharaoh’s authority as a god and undermines his right to rule.

A Hardened Heart

As we read about the plagues, we encounter this concept of God hardening Pharaoh’s heart. For many, this is an upsetting idea. Some people read it as God has predetermined to harden Pharaoh’s heart, but when Pharaoh’s heart is hard, God judges him for it. What’s the deal? If God is hardening him, how can God blame Pharaoh? I don’t think that’s a good reading of what’s going on in the text. First, when God says he’s going to harden Pharaoh’s heart, he doesn’t say why or in what manner. Once you actually get into the interactions between Pharaoh and God, you see that Pharaoh is hardening his own heart and God is responding in kind.

Second, in stories from the ancient Near East, they don’t do scene shifts the way we do. For example, if I take a coin from my pocket and describe it to you, I’ll say, “This coin is round and it has the word ‘liberty’ on it above this dude’s head. Underneath the guy’s head, it says, ‘1995’. And this coin has a bird on it and it says, ‘The United States of America’ above the bird and ‘quarter dollar’ under the bird.” You’ve seen a quarter so you understand that I’m describing two sides of the same coin. In Hebrew narrative, it’s very normal for the author to give you two sides of the same coin without ever alerting you to the fact that he has flipped the coin. That’s exactly what’s going on with the description of the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart.

A Heavy Heart

But there’s more to it than that. Scripture uses a few terms that are translated as “harden the heart.” The first word actually means “to be strong.” It’s the same word used in Deuteronomy 31:6 and Joshua 1:9 when we are told to be strong and courageous. Another word sometimes translated as “hard” means “to be difficult.” If you have a really difficult task, you would use this word and say the job is hard.

The third common word that is translated as “hard” actually means “heavy.” This is significant when you consider the Egyptians’ concept of what happened after death. They believed the dead person’s heart would be placed on one side of a scale and a feather on the other. If the heart was lighter than a feather, the person was admitted to the afterlife. But if the heart was heavy with sin or evil, it would be devoured and the person would cease to exist.

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So when we read that God made Pharaoh’s heart heavy, we’re essentially being told that God is putting Pharaoh in a situation where he’s not even meeting his own standards. When you get to Exodus 14:7, God says he going to harden Pharaoh’s heart and later in verses 17 and 18, he’s going to harden the hearts of the Egyptians to “show his own glory.” What’s so compelling is that the word that gets translated “harden their hearts” is the same word for “glory.” It’s the word that means “heavy.”

Through the plagues, God created circumstances that put the heaviness of Pharaoh’s heart on display for all to see. By doing this, He revealed his own heaviness—his weightiness or significance. In other words, his glory.

Heeding God’s Promptings

Another thing to consider in this encounter is that Pharaoh is not coming off a clean slate. Even before Moses showed up, the view of Pharaoh (and Pharaoh’s own view of himself) is that he is a god. For example, one ancient Egyptian text admonishes,

“Worship Pharaoh. He lives forever. Worship him within your bodies and commune with his majesty in your hearts. He is the sun by whose beams we see. He is the one who illuminates both Upper and Lower Egypt, even more than the sun disc itself.”

When Moses first starts dialoguing with Pharaoh, he says, “Thus says Yahweh….” He is bringing Pharaoh a message from a deity and Pharaoh’s response reveals where Pharaoh is coming from during the whole interchange. “Who is this Yahweh that I should pay the least bit of attention to what he has to say?” (Exodus 5:2)

The implications are pretty obvious. Those of us who have walked with God for any length of time can recall experiences when we felt like the Spirit of God was prompting us in some direction. I’ve borrowed a line from a pastor of mine and incorporated it into my life:

I have decided to follow the promptings of the spirit as best I understand them.

That’s the lesson here. When we develop a lifestyle or a habit of ignoring the promptings of the Spirit, we are hardening our own hearts and we run the risk that God will respond in kind. It is our job to remain open to the promptings of the Spirit and to follow them as best we can.


In Exodus Chapter 12, we come to the Passover. The Passover is still a major Jewish holiday. In fact, you may observe it or know someone who observes Passover every spring. If you’re not Jewish, my guess is that you might not know much about the Passover, except that around Easter, grocery stores advertise specials on matzo and lamb.


Passover is surprisingly relevant to our understanding of Jesus. Jesus’s death and resurrection took place during Passover and early Christians used Passover as the central metaphor for understanding his life, teaching, death and resurrection. Familiarizing ourselves with the Passover story in Exodus offers another chance for us to add dimension to our understanding of Jesus.

Setting the Scene for the First Passover

As we’ve already discussed, Moses delivers God’s command to Pharaoh to “Let my people go.” Pharaoh responds by doubling down on the oppression. The first nine plagues sent by God fail to change Pharaoh’s mind. Then God says to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. After that, he will let you go from here, and when he does, he will drive you out completely.” (Exodus 11:1) This sets up the crucial moment when God liberates his people from Egypt.

 So Moses said, “This is what the Lord says: ‘About midnight I will go throughout Egypt. Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn son of the female slave, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well. There will be loud wailing throughout Egypt—worse than there has ever been or ever will be again. But among the Israelites not a dog will bark at any person or animal.’ Then you will know that the Lord makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.” (Exodus 11:4-7)

Next, the Lord gives Moses a set of instructions for the Israelites to prepare them for a quick exit from Egypt. These preparations mainly have to do with the last meal the Israelites will eat before they leave the land of their enslavement. It seems a little strange that God would put so much emphasis on the preparation and eating of the Israelite’s final supper in Egypt, but it makes sense when you consider that God is setting up the meal as a ritual to be recreated yearly by later generations of Israelites. (Exodus 12:17) More importantly, God is putting in place a symbolic event that would foreshadow the work of Jesus.

The Lamb

The Lord’s instructions put special emphasis on two parts of the meal: the lamb and the bread. In preparation for the Exodus, the Lord tells Moses that on the tenth day of the month, every Hebrew household is to take a one-year-old male lamb without any blemish and keep it until twilight of the fourteenth day of the month, at which time they are to kill it. If there aren’t enough people in the house to eat a whole lamb, they are to share the lamb with another household. It is important for them not to have meat left over after the Passover meal.

It goes without saying that the first Passover was a radical event. In the midst of issuing a warning about his judgment on the Egyptians, the Lord gives his people instructions on how to survive the night in Egypt. The lamb isn’t just to provide a quick bite of dinner on the way out the door; it provides the Israelites with a protective mark, a sign to show they are the people of God. In Exodus 12:7, God instructs the Israelites to take the lamb’s blood and smear it on their door frames to mark them as distinct from the Egyptians.


Does it seem odd that you would gather with your family every year to celebrate the killing of a lamb and the smearing of its blood in order to have the wrath of God pass over you? Actually, it shouldn’t be too hard to imagine. We call it Easter. In fact, early Christians commonly connected the death of Jesus, who was called the Lamb of God, with the Passover.


The Bread

The second key element of the Israelite’s last supper in Egypt is the bread. The Passover is the first day of a longer celebration that God is instituting called the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Notice again that while God is giving the Israelites instructions on their preparation to leave Egypt, he is also giving directions on how to remember and re-create the Passover meal for future generations. Each element in the celebration serves a symbolic purpose. Exodus 12:15 lays out the requirements for baking and eating the bread:


For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast. On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh must be cut off from Israel.

For emphasis, the rules for preparing and eating bread during are repeated in verses 17-20.

“Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I   brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. In the first month you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel. Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread.” (Exodus 12:17-20)

In between these two lists of regulations about the bread, God issued another command that no work be done during the festival. (Exodus 12:16). I don’t know about you, but a seven-day rest period sounds really good. God also mandated a special time of worship on the first and last days of the festival for all the people. The only work permitted was the preparation of food.

Why all this talk about the unleavened bread? It was to facilitate the Israelites’ quick exit from Egypt. If you’ve ever wondered why some churches today serve flavorless crackers or cardboard-like wafers that melt on your tongue, it goes back to Exodus and this passages describing how the Israelites needed to be ready to hit the road. They couldn’t take the time to let their bread rise.

For Now and Later

So this section of Exodus is about now and later. The Israelites are to follow the Instructions that Moses has laid out while they are in Egypt as the angel of death literally passes over their homes, and later as they remember the Exodus.

“Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance for you and your descendants. When you enter the land that the Lord will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. And when your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ then tell them, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.’” Then the people bowed down and worshiped. The Israelites did just what the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron. (Exodus 12:24-29)

God is setting up this holiday because he knows that getting the people out of slavery in Egypt is going to be a core memory that has to be rehearsed in order for ancient Israel to have an identity.  In the years, decades and even centuries to come you continually see this reminder from the Lord: “I am the Lord who brought you out of Egypt. Even when future generations of Israelites who never lived in Egypt are thinking, “That was like 500 years ago. I was born right over there,” it doesn’t matter. God is going to continue to say, “I am the Lord who brought you out of Egypt because there’s a community identity, and the identity of the Nation of Israel is we were delivered from the hands of the Egyptians, and it was our God who delivered us from slavery.

Identity and Purpose

And God knows that they have to continue to rehearse that memory year after year for over a thousand years, because if the Nation of Israel loses sight of that identity they lose their purpose. If you read further in the Old Testament you see that’s exactly what happens. They lose their purpose. They lose their way because they forget.

I’ve been walking with the Lord long enough now that I’ve watched believers drop like flies. When circumstances of life come at you, it is so easy to forget. When you’re a mom and you can’t even get a moment to breathe, because your life is being poured into your children who demand constant attention, how do you take a slice out of life to even be able to pause and remember just for a few minutes? It becomes incredibly difficult and everything in our lives is screaming at us to distract us, to keep us remembering who we are in Christ and what God has done in our lives.

We need the rehearsal of those stories, we need those moments in our lives where we pause just to remember that God has done amazing things for us. That’s a necessary part of the Christian life. For all of us there will come times, whether is a dark time or more often it’s a distracted time, when we begin to lose sight of what God is doing in our lives. We have to build in rhythms that allow us to remember. God knows this and this is why he institutes the Passover for his people.


If you’ve ever felt as though God is not active in your life, the book of Exodus is for you. If you’ve ever felt abandoned by God, the book of Exodus is for you. If you’ve ever wondered where God is in your life, what happened to the miracles, why he seems so distant or unconcerned, the book of Exodus is for you.

What’s the book of Exodus about? The easy answer is that it’s about the exodus, and this is true. The exodus is referred to in scripture more than any other event because it sets the paradigm of God’s saving work for his people. But the exodus is over by chapter 15 of a 40 chapter book, which begs the question: What’s the book of Exodus about?


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I contend that the book of Exodus is about the move from God’s apparent absence to his tangible presence. At the beginning of the book, the people are in slavery, wondering if their God cares. By the end of the book, God is in a tent in the center of the camp.

In the first two chapters of the book, God is conspicuously absent. In 1:8 we are told that a new king has come to the Egyptian throne who has no regard for Joseph and what he did for the nation (recorded in Genesis 41) and, in turn, for the Hebrews living in the land. 1:11-14 tells us the Hebrews are put under slavery and harsh oppression, ruthlessly forced into slave labor. By 1:15. the situation has gotten to the point wherePharaoh is ordering the death of Hebrew children! We get a hint that God at least knows what’s going on when we’re told in 1:20 that he was kind to the midwives who didn’t cooperate with Pharaoh in the killing of babies, but the Hebrews are still left to wonder how they got into the situation in the first place. And finally, in chapter 2, we’re told of a mom who has to place her child in a basket and send him down the river in order to save his life.


All of this would have the Israelites wondering:

  • Where was God when we were becoming slaves?
  • Has God abandoned his covenant with Abraham?
  • Has God Forgotten it?
  • Is God too lazy to follow through?
  • Is God angry with us?

This is why 2:23-25 is so critical to the theme of the book: The Israelites groaned under the harsh yoke of their slavery and their cry for help went up to God. God heard their groaning, remembered his covenant with their ancestors, and took note, a very Hebrew way of saying God is about to take action.


By the end of the book of Exodus God is in a tent in the middle of his people. In fact, the bulk of chapters 25-40 concern the construction of the tabernacle, God’s tent. Exodus ends by telling us that the cloud representing his presence covered the tent and that his glory filled the tabernacle such that Moses was not even able to enter. There was a cloud by day with fire in it by night to tangibly represent for the people that their God was in their midst. So we see that the bookends of the narrative of the book of Exodus go from God’s apparent absence to his very tangible presence.


There are two parts of the book that we as Christians typically overlook that were of special concern to ancient Israel. This first is the giving of the law in chapters 20-24. The law was not a stodgy list of rules to keep. Rather, it was that which gave Israel identity as the people of God. It allowed them to have a strong sense of national pride and unity, similar to what the constitution is for the United States. While in slavery in Egypt, they were not a true nation. Yes, they were a clan of people with an ethnic identity, but they were not a self-governing political entity that could properly be called a nation. God promised Abraham that he would make him into a mighty nation. It is the giving of the law at Mt. Sinai as recorded in chapters 19-24 that serves as the official fulfillment of that promise.


The second is the regulations for the construction of the tabernacle. Now that God lives in us via his Spirit, the tabernacle is no longer an issue. But for ancient Israel, the building of God’s house and the realization that he was going to be living in their midst was certainly a very big deal. This is why there is an almost annoying level of detail about the finest points of construction in these chapters. They were building God’s house, and this realization was a source of pride as well pressure to take the utmost care in construction. Their national identity was wrapped up in being the people of Yahweh and thus the construction of the tabernacle was a source of national pride.


So the next time you open the book of Exodus, think about where the story is at in terms of the broad theme of the book. It’s about the exodus event, yes, but a more thorough view reveals that the swath of the narrative is about moving from a seemingly absent God to a God who is living in the midst of his people. God is present in his absence. Though it seemed he did not care, he was, in fact, orchestrating events for the good of his people.

The same is true today: Even in those times where circumstances scream the absence of God, he is in fact present.

Why I Love Leviticus

There’s nothing quite like the book of Leviticus for getting a feel of what scripture means when it calls God holy. When I was doing my doctoral studies my dissertation advisor, Gordon Wenham, told me that in all his years of being an Old Testament scholar the thing that had the biggest impact on his faith was writing a commentary on Leviticus. Why? What are we supposed to get out of Leviticus?

Leviticus Teaches that Holiness is a Real Thing.

If I had to boil the book of Leviticus down to one sentence it would be: How does a holy God live in the midst of an unholy people? Holiness in ancient cultures was not an intangible, abstract notion of ethics or morals as it is for the modern west. Holiness was just as real to them as nuclear or biohazardous waste is for us and the measures taken to prevent outbreak were tangible.


They would fear an outbreak of the holy the same way someone living near a nuclear reactor might fear an outbreak of radiation from a meltdown. Think of the response of sheer terror of the Israelites towards Achan when he took some of the things devoted to Yahweh. The book of Leviticus makes God’s holiness concrete.

Leviticus Shows that God Actually Likes People.

The whole point of the sacrificial system introduced in Leviticus is to figure out how God can be near his people. I go back to what the book is about: How to have a holy God live in the midst of unholy people. The story of the construction of the tabernacle in Exodus is a story of going from a seemingly absent God (Ex 1-2) to Yahweh living in a tent in our midst (Ex 40). The tabernacle was a tangible way God could remind people of his nearness to them. Yahweh loves people and desires to be with them.

Leviticus Brings a Deeper Understanding of Christ.

Just as the sin offering in Leviticus was meant to cleanse the tabernacle, Jesus’ blood sacrifice is meant to cleanse people so God can live in them via his Spirit. People become the tabernacle and the sacrifice required to cleanse people is above and beyond what was required for the tent. Knowing Leviticus gives clarity to the flow of thought in Hebrews 9-10, a couple of the most epic chapters of scripture.

I wrote about this in chapter four of my book Jesus Prequel. I hope you’ll take a look at it. If it inspires you in your faith even 1% of how much writing it inspired me it will be worth your time.

The Law is About Works (and Other Lies We Tell Ourselves)


As I talk with people who read the Bible and in general believe what it has to say, I often hear three common misconceptions about Old Testament law.

God Didn’t Really Mean It, Or Did He?

The first common misconception is that God never really intended for anyone to keep the law. Now the problem with this view is that God explicitly states, “No, I’m intending for you to keep these laws.” Look at Deuteronomy 30:11.

“Now what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach. It is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, ‘Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?’ Nor is it beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, ‘Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?’ No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it.” (Deuteronomy 30:11-14, TNIV)

So we can’t go around claiming that God just never even expected anyone to keep the law.

No One Can Do That, Or Can We?

The second misconception is the idea that no one ever actually managed to keep the law. But look at this Scripture from Luke:

“In the time of Herod king of Judea there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the priestly division of Abijah; his wife Elizabeth was also a descendant of Aaron. Both of them were righteous in the sight of God, observing all the Lord’s commands and decrees blamelessly.” (Luke 1:5-6, TNIV)

Or what about what Paul said in Philippians?

“…though I myself have reasons for such confidence. If others think they have reasons to put confidence in the flesh, I have more: circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; in regard to the law, a Pharisee; as for zeal, persecuting the church; as for righteousness based on the law, faultless.” (Philippians 3:4-6)

So we can’t just say that no one ever managed to keep the law.

Grace Replaced Law, Or Did It?

The third common misconception is that law is all about works but the New Testament is all about grace. In regards to this one, I would just take you back to Exodus 19 where God shows up and says, “Hey guys, you’re saved. It’s done. It’s delivered. But if you want to be my representatives to the world, then here are some regulations of how you can represent me well.” When viewed from this perspective, you realize that grace is tied into everything that’s going with the law from beginning to end.

So that leaves us with viewing the law as what it is; part of God’s revelation of himself.

What’s With The Snake?


Am I the only one who has ever wondered why snakes were significant in the Bible? Sure, the snake has a key role in Genesis, but why did God choose the snake to convince the Egyptians that Moses was sent by God? Why did God choose this as a sign of his power and authority? It was more intentional than you might think.

Pharoah Loved The Snake

I’m not sure how he felt about the snake as a pet or part of the family, but as far as the Egyptians were concerned, the snake was a symbol of protection for Pharoah. It was part of Pharaoh’s headdress (called a uraeus) and Pharoah believed the uraeus actually went into battle ahead of him.

God Was Not Impressed with Pharaoh’s Snake…

Moses realized at the burning bush that God was calling him to go before Pharaoh and declare the very words of the Lord. He knew that unless he could give some sort of sign to confirm that his message was from God, Pharaoh wouldn’t believe him. God tells Moses and Aaron that when Pharaoh asks for a miracle, they are to throw down the staff and it will turn into a snake. If you’ve read the story, you know that Moses and Aaron do as they are told only to have Pharaoh’s magicians turn their staffs into snakes as well using their “secret arts” (chapter 4). Aaron’s staff swallows the magicians’ staffs; it was a message that God’s uraeus was bigger than Pharaoh’s.

…Or Moses’s Capabilities

Moses was well aware of the fact that Pharaoh would be well within his rights to simply look at him and say “you’re dead”. Imagine the fear and trepidation that Moses must have felt; it makes sense why he argues with God and asks him to send someone else. This makes God angry, not because Moses is afraid, but because Moses doesn’t get it. God wants Moses to know that he’s not after his capabilities; he’s after his heart. When Moses needed a win and a sign that God was in control, God hit Pharaoh where he was his most confident, in the symbol of his protection.

There will be times when God puts us in uncomfortable situations and we realize we are in over our heads. So what? Moses is proof that our inadequacies are powerless to derail Gods plans. 

Our Anemic View of The Gospel: Part 1 of 3


It’s time to redefine our understanding of the Gospel. If you believe the primary message of the Gospel is Jesus saving us from our sins, we have a problem. That’s nice, it feels good, but it’s weak. Anemic even. I may have just ruffled your feathers, but keep reading. My intention is to strengthen your grasp on the gravity of Jesus’ story. To do this, we need to look at—yep, you guessed it—the Old Testament.

God’s Pursuit of Intimacy

The Old Testament is the story of God’s desire for intimacy with us. It starts with the creation of the world. We had perfect intimacy with God and it was beautiful, until we messed up the entire plan with one apple. From here, things just got worse. We started killing one another and the nations were scattered across the earth. Genesis 12 is the beginning of restoration.. God promises Abraham that his descendants will be blessed for generations to come.

The Law Never Saved Anyone

Exodus opens with the Hebrews in slavery in Egypt, not quite the mighty nation we envisioned. But God had a better story and bigger plan in mind. God uses Moses to free the Hebrews. At Mt. Sinai, God tells his people that of all the nations, they will be his treasured possession (chapter 19). Boom. The relationship with God is now official at a national level. By chapters 25-40, God is dwelling in the tabernacle among his people.

Leviticus details some intense regulations for keeping the tabernacle pure and clean. If this is a book you tend to dismiss, you need to read this next sentence. The laws of Leviticus were never intended to cleanse our souls or make our way into heaven. This amazing book illustrates God holiness; those laws make is possible for our holy God could to dwell in the midst of a very unholy people.

Another Bad Breakup 

It would have been nice if we could have kept this intimacy in tact. Unfortunately, in Judges a new generation of Israelites has takes up idolatry. By 1 Samuel 8, the people who had never needed a king other than Yahweh, request a king. Once again things goes from bad to worse until God finally exiles these folks.

God Never Gave Up

Here’s the thing about God; he’s not one to abandon his people.. God knew that exile was the only way for them to overcome their sin. And it did, the exile cured the Israelites of their idolatry and they later returned and rebuilt Jerusalem.. Even in exile, God was there, working to bring them back to a place of intimacy with him. Isaiah 40 is God’s message of hope. Even when all seems lost, “here is your God.”

God’s desire from the start has been to have a relationship with us and he has never wavered in his pursuit of intimacy. The Old Testament tells that story—a story where God makes himself tangible, meets us where we are, and redeems our sins over and over.

So why did Jesus come? We will discuss that on Thursday.

Will You Dare to Hope?


Hope—it’s a scary thing. Most of us have learned how dangerous hope can be. Hope means vulnerability, it’s risky and messy and it sets us up for potential disappointment. Hope means we dare to believe in something that carries no guarantee. If you’re watching the news these days, hope seems like a foolish choice. The politics of our country and the atrocities taking place in our world make hoping for change—real change—seem like a waste.

The prophets of the Bible would say differently, they had a formula and a mandate for hope. Their role was to pass along messages or “oracles” from Yahweh and while the message was often an outlook on the future, it was always discussed with an eye to the present. Prophets never simply forecasted for the sake of sharing the future; they gave an urgent critique of the present coupled with a vision of things to come.

A Look at Moses & Pharaoh

Moses was perhaps the greatest example of this formula. For Pharaoh, Moses’ critique contained both a social and theological directive. The social directive was easy to identify: God’s people would be slaves no longer. In other words, “Let my people go.” Then Moses issued the theological critique, demonstrating through the ten plagues that the Egyptian deities did not have the power or freedom to act, as the Egyptians believed they could. When Pharaoh didn’t respond to the social directive by freeing the Israelites, God used the plagues as a judgment against him and all of Egypt’s gods. The oracle: Yahweh would free the Hebrews and Egypt’s deities had no authority to stop it.

Reflect On the Past, Move Toward Hope

Vision for the future begins with looking back. We must look at what God has done in the past, reviewing scriptural narratives of God’s power and work again and again. We must think back on our own stories, histories, and experiences. Recalling God’s faithfulness in the past emboldens us to respond to the vision of change.

Hoping for change is hard. At the risk of making generalizations, we tend to ridicule hope. It’s easier to forget what God has done for us and accept our current reality than it is to hope for something new. The prophet demands that, mindful of God’s work in the past, we push through our fear and embrace hope. Like the Israelites who crossed the Red Sea and saw their enemies defeated, we crave the joy of a new vision. Yes, we live in depraved world but we must rehearse God’s work in the past and grasp a vision for the reality God offers. This hope, placed in God’s power and authority, this hope is our very best possibility for change.